Tonik Pt 3 Newstar Jimmy Sets 91120 !EXCLUSIVE!
Tonik Pt 3 Newstar Jimmy Sets 91120
. As a way to deal with the shortfall in the energy sector, the government has been working to promote the production and . . Popularly known as the Economic Freedom Zone (EFZ) in Sri Lanka, the Hambantota Free Trade Zone (FTZ) is regarded as the world's largest privately.Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Tobacco smoke is a known risk factor, and it is widely accepted that increasing the ratio of nitrotyrosine to protein by tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA) is the leading cause of lung cancer. TSNA-induced lung tumors are known to be dependent on the production of a mutagenic derivative of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). Our previous studies demonstrated that TSNA can be oxidized to the nitroso derivative that has been demonstrated to be mutagenic for target cells. We have demonstrated that NNK activates both reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) that may induce damage to cellular DNA. Further, our findings suggested that this mutagenic activity may be related to their capacity to modify specific protein targets and that expression of c-Myc gene may play a critical role in the expression of specific proteins. The overall hypothesis of this proposal is that TSNA are mutagenic to lung cells and induce cellular damage by generation of both ROS and RNS, which affect the function of specific proteins by oxidative/nitrosative modifications. The specific aims of this proposal are: 1) to investigate the mechanism of ROS/RNS-mediated mutagenic activity of TSNA to target cells and the critical role of c-Myc in this process; 2) to investigate the effect of TSNA on activation and function of the mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes; 3) to investigate the potential role of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the mutagenic activity of TSNA; 4) to examine the impact of TSNA on gene expression related to the function of specific proteins. In summary, this study will provide new information on the mechanism of mutagenic activity of TSNA and will determine if ROS/RNS generated by TSNA may act as important mediators for mutagenic activity of TSNA. It is likely that the data generated from this study will lead to further understanding of the mechanisms of toxicity and carcinogenicity of tobacco smoke.Man
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